– – BASIC HOUSEHOLD ANIMAL FIRST AID KIT – –
Have you ever considered having a basic first aid kit for your beloved pet ?
Many may have gone to the local pharmacy and looked at the price of a first aid kit only to leave disheartened due to the price or does contains items that cannot be used on animals.
SPCAs experience first-hand the results of simple medical emergencies that are left as the animal owner does not have the money to go to a Private Vet or has used a home remedy from the Dark Ages. Many times the situation has been worsened to such a degree that the animal either requires extensive Veterinary care, which the owner cannot afford, or is so bad that the animal cannot be saved.
Here is a basic first aid kit made up of items that you will have around the house. We do advise that you place these items in a container or box marked Animal First Aid so that there is no delay in trying to find the items in an emergency.
We have also used simple measurements so that even people without a measuring scale can assist their animals, irrespective of species. Please note that although the information provided below will assist the animal, we do still suggest that you still seek professional assistance as the animal may need antibiotics or other treatment which you cannot provide.
The information provided is to help your animal until it can be taken to the Vet but is not meant for long term treatment. Please do not use human medication on animals.
First Aid Kit
• A clean dry cloth (boiled and sun-dried/ironed) wrapped in another clean cloth
• A bandage or two (can also use a strip of cotton cloth or old T-shirt – boiled, sun-dried/ironed)
• A pack of disposable razor blades
• A bar of soap
• A clean cup and teaspoon – rinsed with boiled water and wrapped in clean cloth
• A small packet of table salt (not iodised or sea salt) – 200g
• A small packet white sugar – 200g • A small packet of Epsom Salts – 200-500g
• A small packet Bicarbonate of Soda – 200g
• Potassium permanganate crystals – 10ml bottle
• Methylated spirits or alcohol (brandy/vodka) – 20ml
• A small packet of Flowers of Sulphur
• A small container of Petroleum Jelly (Vaseline)
• Tincture of Iodine – 50ml bottle
• Bleach – 100ml
• A small bottle of white vinegar – 200ml
• A bottle of clean, boiled water – 500ml
• Space blanket
~ White Sugar
White sugar or honey helps to stop bleeding.
It will also help clean the wound as it draws fluid from the tissues which will help release and help debris float out of the wound.
It will also help with granulation of the tissue and promotes healing of a wound.
It can also be used to stabilise the blood sugar levels in an animal that is in shock for an accident or attack. Mix 3 tablespoons in a ¼ cup of water for the animal to drink.
~ Table Salt (not Iodised or Sea salt)
Mix 2 teaspoons of table salt per 1 litre or boiled cooled water to make a saline solution.
This solution can assist in rinsing off exposed intestines as clean water would damage the tissue.
It can also be used on deep cuts or wounds. Although a higher concentration can be used when cleaning wounds to provide an antisepic quality – mix 1 teaspoon of salt in a cup of water.
In cases of diarrhoea 1 teaspoon of salt to 8 teaspoons of sugar to 1 litre of boiled cooled water can be used to rehydrate the animal.
Epsom Salts Works very well as a poultice.
Use 3 heaped tablespoons placed inside a folded clean cloth, soaked in boiled cooled water and apply to the abscess or injury. Cover the poultice with plastic to help draw impurities and bacteria.
~ Bicarbonate of Soda
It can be used as an eye wash by mixing ½ teaspoon salt with ¼ bicarbonate of soda in a large cup of boiled cooled water (300ml). An eye can be carefully washed out three times per day to remove any purulent material (pus) and bacteria.
~ Potassium permanganate (purple crystals)
A few crystals dissolved in a cup of boiled cooled water (1:4000) makes the water purple which can be used to disinfect wounds and burns. With burns it prevents weeping and coagulates skin tissue.
The ash of banana skins also contain potassium permanganate and can be used for wound treatment.
Can be mixed with iodine or gentian violet to form a tincture to treat fungal skin infections such as ringworm, and also footrot. It helps dry out the hoof and provide antibacterial qualities.
Do not use for extended periods as it dries out skin.
Also do not use of broken skin other than to disinfect an area. Citronellol, which is an insect repellent, can be extracted from the leaves of Geranium and Pelargonium plants by soaking 5 leaves per teaspoon of Brandy for 4 days. The solution can be used around a wound to keep biting flies away. The solution will remain potent for 4 months is kept is a closed bottle.
~ Flowers of Sulphur (pale yellow powder)
1 part Flowers of Sulphur with 10 parts petroleum jelly and use on “stick-tight” fleas, ticks, mange mites, lice and ringworm.
5 parts of Flowers of Sulphur mixed with 100 parts vinegar can be applied to the coat of the animal and allowed to dry. Do not brush out the dried powder. The solution should be applied twice a week for 2-3 weeks.
Can be used as a disinfectant to clean wounds.
You can also paint it under a hoof to treat footrot and also to treat ringworm and other fungal skin infections. Iodine or Gentian Violet can be painted onto the ringworm lesions to assist with the treatment thereof.
Kills bacteria, viruses, yeast and fungi.
It can be used to purify drinking water by diluting 1 spoon in 25 litres of water.
A 1 in 30 solution in water can be used as a disinfectant for buckets, bowls, utensils, where diseases could be transferral from one to another.
The same solution can be painted on walls, floors and doors to prevent the spread of ringworm.
Web collars or halters can be soaked in the solution to prevent the spread of ringworm.
The solution can be wiped over leather harnesses and halters to remove mildew.
~ Space blanket
These are thin silver, noisy plastic sheets that can be found at any pharmacy or camping shop and are inexpensive. They retain body heat very well and can be used on animals that are suffering from hypothermia or to keep an animal warm after an operation.
First and foremost the bleeding needs to be stopped.
This can be done by applying pressure to the wound either directly with a clean cloth and your or bandage a cloth around the area.
Sugar can be used to help stop the bleeding if not too bad.
For excessive bleeding stop as best you can and get the animal to the Vet immediately.
To clean a wound make up a solution of soap and water and use the razor blades to remove the hair away from the wound.
Work away from the wound to prevent soapy water, dirt and hair to enter the wound.
Saline solution can be used to rinse the wound out. Only use the extra salty solution if the wound infected or very dirty as it does sting.
If wound covered in leaves, dirt, mud, etc sugar can be used to loosen the dirt and debris.
Potassium permanganate solution can be used to disinfect the wound if there is seepage or pus. Superficial wounds can be rinsed daily with this solution to aid healing. Deep wound should be rinsed daily with saline solution daily or every second day and then packed with sugar to encourage healing.
Bruises and sprains
Hose down with cold water for larger animals or lead them to a stream and let them stand in the cold water, or use ice, or wet cloths on the area, at least 3-4 times per day until the swelling is no longer hot and painful. Wintergreen ointment can be used on sprains but do not use on wounds or bruises as it slows blood clotting.